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Violations that are not appropriately and effectively addressed can perpetuate and compound these dangers. In evaluating any country’s compliance with its arms control, disarmament, and nonproliferation obligations, the United States considers a variety of factors.Therefore, within the framework of any given set of agreements and commitments, vigorous verification, scrupulous compliance analysis, and robust compliance enforcement are critical aspects of U. These include the nature and precise language of the obligations undertaken in the context of international law, information regarding the country’s activities - including that acquired by so-called National Technical Means of verification (i.e., intelligence collection), cooperative verification measures, open source information, and diplomatic means - and any information provided by the country in question.Arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament agreements and related commitments continue to be important tools that can protect and advance U. In fact, failures to comply can present serious national security challenges.A party that complies with a treaty only to have one or more of its counterparties violate the agreement, for instance, can find itself at a potentially grave and destabilizing disadvantage – a danger that would be all the more acute to the degree that such cheating is successfully concealed.When discussing politically binding commitments, the Report generally uses the term “adherence” instead of “compliance.” Thus, a State engaged in conduct that is determined to be inconsistent with a politically binding commitment is said to be “not adhering” to that commitment, rather than “violating” the commitment. Further, an interagency review is conducted in appropriate cases, including when other treaty parties formally raise concerns regarding U. Do D components ensure their implementing program offices adhere to Do D compliance directives and seek guidance from the offices charged with oversight responsibility. For example, DHS similarly established a compliance review process, which assesses DHS-sponsored research for compliance with all relevant arms controls agreements.When concerns arise regarding the actions of our treaty partners, we seek, whenever possible, to address our concerns through diplomatic engagement. Similar processes have been established by other departments and agencies to ensure that their programs and activities comply with U. Interagency reviews also are conducted in appropriate cases, such as when other States formally raise concerns regarding U. implementation of its arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament obligations and commitments.

Polzin这样评价效率测试,“CPU时间和使用时间是基准测量结果,因为所有其他的测量都对这两种测量数据有这样或那样的影响。”他继续说,“…这两个测量指标,如果一个降低或增加,都会在不同程度上对其他测量产生影响。” 违背最基本的编程规范会掉入一个或多个效率的陷阱,例如在临时数据集空间中保留无用数据集、或没有提前提取子数据集以减少总数据条数、或同时读取必须的和不需要的变量。通过在编码之前开始更好的规划和认识什么可行和什么不需要优先,可以很大程度上避免导致一个应用程序效率低效。大多数人没有计划导致失败或者说他们计划失败。幸运的是可以通过学习以下几条编程指南来实现效率提高。 Guidelines to Hold Dear 重视指导方针 一个程序的执行性能在优化前后常常表现出巨大的差异。通过坚持可行的原则,一个程序可以获得高效率,这将直接带来大量资源的节约。一般情况下,90%的效率提升可以通过相对容易的简单策略快速达到。但是,剩下的10%将具有难度。因此,你需要判断应用程序是否达到了“相对”最佳效率,同时保持时间和成本之间的虚拟平衡。 调查结果 对参与者对效率和性能所引起的反映进行了一项调查。表2是对效率和性能的调查结果,对每个参与者的反映进行分析提供了更好地了解当使用者和应用程序开发者在使用有效的方法和策略时的需要。 展开该项调查的首要目的是得到人们所掌握的各种提高效率的方法和技巧的共识理解水平。发现的东西相当有趣。大多数用户和应用开发员希望他们的应用程序尽可能高效。许多人都尽力实施稳健的策略和技巧,结果也能取得理想的成果。不幸地是其他人,由于对高效技术不熟悉导致应用程序可以运行,至于是否高效就不得而知了。 受访者经常指出,效率和性能优化不仅重要,而且对编程来说非常关键。许多人将响应时间当作程序运行的关键指标,并一直寻找各种方法来提升该指标。希普咨询(Shipp Consulting)的Charles Edwin Shipp 对效率技巧的运用方面提了一些意见,“效率不应该被视为一次性活动。最好将它作为在资源利用和使用频率之间达到最佳平衡的一个持续不断的过程。” 程序代码示例 下面的程序例子演示了几个比较受欢迎的效率技巧的应用程序。这些技巧通过占用CPU时间,数据存储,I/O,内存和编程时间几个方面展现出来。 3.通过使用IF-THEN/ELSE语句而不是未带ELSE的IFTHEN语句,一旦任何观测的条件为真时,SAS系统将停止处理条件逻辑。 data capitols; set states;if state=’CA’ then capitol = ‘Sacramento’; else if state=’FL’ then capitol = ‘Tallahassee’; else if state=’TX’ then capitol = ‘Austin’; run; 其他普遍接受的技术包括WHERE,LENGTH,LCLASS和KEEP=/DROP=数据集选项,保留应用程序需要的变量;避免不需要的排序;使用IDXNAME=或IDXWHERE=OPTION验证简单的且/或复合索引的效率;使用SAS函数;使用能够提高应用程序效率的有效技术DATA_NULL_步。 接受度较高的技术(在“有时”和“总是”之间)并未获得包括使用系统选项控制资源的参与者的一致支持;删除不必要的WORK逻辑库中的数据集;将两个或更多步骤整合成一个步骤;存储和使用输入和输出格式;创建和使用由判别变量组成的简单和复杂的索引;使用APPEND过程连接两个数据集;构建IF-THEN/ELSE语句改善条件处理过程;保存中间文件,尤其是大型多步工作。 古普塔编程(Gupta Programming)的苏尼尔·库马尔古普塔(Sunil Kumar Gupta)关于设置输入格式,输出格式和标注提出了以下建议“用SAS数据集存储输入格式,输出格式,标注,以减少处理时间。使用这项技术的原因为许多流行的程序在输出时使用存储的输出格式,无需在每个步骤都设置它们。这向程序员和最终用户提供了额外的动机,尤其是报告要求在关键的时候”。 被更多用户使用的实现更高效率的一个非常有趣的方法是使用SQL Pass-Through Facility 访问在一个或多个数据库环境中存储的数据。对用户来说好处为可以使得所有过程都在主机上的数据库进行,(例如,Oracle,DB2,Access等),这也是所有过程应该的。此外,SAS软件和与其相关的处理资源消耗会自动传送到主机数据库以获得更高的效率。 被调查参与者称为“有时”使用的实现高效率的技术包括使用数据集选项,使用数据压缩,通过关闭不必要的组件和/或选项节省内存,使用SQL过程整合和简化多项操作,使用Stored Program Facility,当重复数据较多时创建和使用数据和SQL视图控制环境;使用DATASETS过程步的COPY语句来操作一个多个索引。 学习必要的技术 人们如何了解有效的技术?小部分人通过正规培训学习,其他通过公开发表的指南(例如,书籍,手册,文章等)。大多数人表示他们学习技术是前人的经验,通过熟人(例如,用户组)和/或自己工作总结的。 任何改善优于没有改善。因此,坚持一套实用的指引可以在未来几年里明显受益。调查问卷回答发现了以下问题: 1)正规培训在效率和性能方面存在水平不足。 2)在编码阶段之前未做计划。 3)时间和预算不足往往可以归因于无效的规划和效率战略的实施。 结论 应用程序的执行效率和性能策略的价值不能过度强调。应该小心每个应用程序的功能,因为一个或更多效率技术经常影响应用程序的框架特点和/或应用的特性。 效率技术可以通过各种不同的方式学得。许多人通过正规课堂教学学习有价值的技术,然而其他人在公布的指南,诸如书籍,手册,文章和录像带中发现有价值的信息。但是最有价值的技术来自其他人的经验,以及他们自己的,口头叙述和在工作中学得。不管什么方式,都会有一点点的效率。 参考文献 …

The CWC Conference of the States Parties (CSP) decision regarding the “Final Extended Deadlines of 29 April, 2012” requires the United States to report at each regular session of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Executive Council (EC) on the progress achieved towards complete destruction of remaining stockpiles. The original deadline of 2012 could not be met when changes in U. law required research and development into alternate feasible destruction methods other than transport and incineration.

The United States provides a report and briefing to the EC quarterly and to the CSP annually on U. The United States has completed destruction of its Category 2 and 3 chemical weapons and has completed destruction of nearly 90 percent of its Category 1 chemical weapons stockpile.

Under Section IV, paragraph 2 of the June 1990 Protocol to the TTBT, each party is required, by not later than June 1 of each year, to inform the other of the number of underground nuclear weapons tests by specified category that it intends to conduct in the following calendar year.

For purposes of the TTBT, an “underground nuclear weapon test” means either a single underground nuclear explosion conducted at a test site, or two or more underground nuclear explosions conducted at a test site within an area delineated by a circle having a diameter of two kilometers, conducted within a total period of time of 0.1 second, and whose combined yield is less than 150 kilotons. activities during the reporting period were consistent with the obligations set forth in the TTBT, PNET, and LTBT.

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